What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a serious complex condition which can affect the entire body. Diabetes requires daily self care and if complications develop, diabetes can have a significant impact on quality of life and can reduce life expectancy. While there is currently no cure for diabetes, you can live an enjoyable life by learning about the condition and effectively managing it.

There are different types of diabetes; all types are complex and serious. The three main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes.

How does diabetes affect the body?

When someone has diabetes, their body can't maintain healthy levels of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a form of sugar which is the main source of energy for our bodies. Unhealthy levels of glucose in the blood can lead to long term and short term health complications.

For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. When people with diabetes eat glucose, which is in foods such as breads, cereals, fruit and starchy vegetables, legumes, milk, yoghurt and sweets, it can't be converted into energy.

Instead of being turned into energy the glucose stays in the blood resulting in high blood glucose levels. After eating, the glucose is carried around your body in your blood. Your blood glucose level is called glycaemia. Blood glucose levels can be monitored and managed through self care and treatment.

Three things you need to know about diabetes:

It is not one condition- there are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes
All types of diabetes are complex and require daily care and management
Diabetes does not discriminate, anyone can develop diabetes
Diabetes is serious

Diabetes can be managed well but the potential complications are the same for type 1 and type 2 diabetes including heart attack, stroke, kidney disease, limb amputation, depression, anxiety and blindness.

We know diabetes:

Is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults
Is a leading cause of kidney failure and dialysis
Increases the risk of heart attacks and stroke by up to four times
Is a major cause of limb amputations
Affects mental health as well as physical health. Depression, anxiety and distress occur in more than 30% of all people with diabetes
Early diagnosis, optimal treatment and effective ongoing support and management reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications.

Why is diabetes increasing?

All types of diabetes are increasing in prevalence:

Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10% of all diabetes and is increasing
Type 2 diabetes accounts for 85% of all diabetes and is increasing
Gestational diabetes in pregnancy is increasing
Type 2 diabetes is increasing at the fastest rate. There are large numbers of people with silent, undiagnosed type 2 diabetes which may be damaging their bodies. An estimated 2 million Australians are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and are already showing early signs of the condition.

Type 2 diabetes is one of the major consequences of the obesity epidemic. The combination of massive changes to diet and the food supply, combined with massive changes to physical activity with more sedentary work and less activity, means most populations are seeing more type 2 diabetes.

Genes also play a part with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese, South Asian, Indian, Pacific Islander and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

Symptoms

In type 1 diabetes, symptoms are often sudden and can be life-threatening; therefore it is usually diagnosed quite quickly. In type 2 diabetes, many people have no symptoms at all, while other signs can go unnoticed being seen as part of 'getting older'.

Therefore, by the time symptoms are noticed, complications of diabetes may already be present.

Common symptoms include:

Being more thirsty than usual
Passing more urine
Feeling tired and lethargic
Always feeling hungry
Having cuts that heal slowly
Itching, skin infections
Blurred vision
Unexplained weight loss (type 1)
Gradually putting on weight (type 2)
Mood swings
Headaches
Feeling dizzy
Leg cramps

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